Qur'an is the eternal miracle of Islam where the more advanced science, the more visible the validity kemukjizatannya. Allaah down to the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam to free mankind from darkness into light the various Divine and guide them to the straight path. If there is something less obvious to many of the verses that they receive, they immediately ask the Messenger of Allah.
Imam bukhari and Muslim narrated from Ibn Mas'ud radiyallahu anhu, that when it comes down verse
الذين آمنوا ولم يلبسوا إيمانهم بظلم أولئك لهم الأمن وهم مهتدون) 82 (
"People who believe and confuse not their faith with injustice (shirk), That's what they got security and they are the ones who receive guidance" (Surah: Al An'am: 82).
The Companions objected to the verse. Then they asked the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, "O Allah's Apostle, where there are people who do not mendzalimi him?". He replied, "His understanding is not as you mean, do you not hear what was said a pious servant to his son."
وإذ قال لقمان لابنه وهو يعظه يا بني لا تشرك بالله إن الشرك لظلم عظيم) 13 (
"Verily, allying (God) is really a great injustice." (Qur'an: Luqman: 13)
The Companions are very excited to get the teaching of the prophet al qur'an. They want to memorize and understand. For them, this is an honor. Along with that, they also earnestly practice and enforce its laws.
Abdirahman Abu As-Sulami narrates, that the people who used to recite the Quran to us, like Uthman ibn Affan and Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and others, when they learned ten verses from the prophet shallallahu'alaihi wa sallam, they are reluctant understand and practice it through it before. They said, we studied al qur'an, science and charity as well.
Messenger shallallahu'alaihi wa sallam did not allow them to write anything other than al qur'an, because fear can be mixed with others. Imam Muslim narrated from Abu Said al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allâh shallallahu'alaihi wa sallam said, "do not ever write anything from me. Whoever writes from me something other than al qur'an then delete it. Convey haditsku no problem. But whosoever shall deny me intentionally, then the Fire place "
Although the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam never allow some companions after that write the hadith, the real things that are associated with al qur'an still rests on history, namely through talqin (al qur'an learn directly from a teacher who has a sanad concatenated to the Prophet). So that happened during the Prophet, the Caliph Abu Bakr and Umar radiyallahu anhuma. Then at the time of Caliph Uthman radiyallahu anhu, in accordance with the demands of the conditions, make an ijtihad, that is to unite the Muslims with the guidelines of the Manuscripts which later was named Mushaf al-Imam. Furthermore, Manuscripts were sent to various countries at that time. As for writing the letters referred to rasm Ottomans, which was associated with the name of Caliph Uthman. This step was the beginning of the science of writing rasm al qur'an.
Then the Caliph Ali radiyallahu anhu told Abul Aswad Ad-Nahwu Duali to conceive a rule, in order to maintain the existence of errors in pronunciation and to stabilize the reading of al qur'an. It is considered a forerunner of the emergence of science i'rab al qur'an.
The shahabatpun continued the tradition of understanding the meanings of the Qur'an and its interpretation in accordance with their respective conditions, both different capacities to understand and intensity in proximity to the prophet. Furthermore, in conditions so disciples of the Companions of the tabi'in take knowledge of them.
Among the famous exegetes among the companions of the prophet is four caliphs, Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn Abbas, Ubayy ibn Ka'b, Zaid ibn Thabit, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr.
As of the tabi'in, not a few who gain knowledge from the Companions and then perform ijtihad in interpreting the clause. Among the disciples of Ibn Abbas, who is quite famous is the Said ibn Jubayr, Mujahid, Ikrimah Maula Ibn Abbas, Ibn Thawus Kisan al Yamani and Atha 'ibn Rabah.
Pupils Ubay ibn Ka'b that popular in Medina is Zaid ibn Aslam, Abu Al-Aliyah and Muhammad ibn Ka'b al Qurazhi. In Iraq there are some students Abdullah bin Mas'ud who was also known as an exegete. They are Alqama bin Qais, Masruq ibn al-Alda ', Aswad ibn Yazid, Amir al-sya'bi, Hasan al-Basri and Qatadah bin Di'amah as-Sadusi.
The type of science that was narrated from them include: Tafsir, al qur'an ghareeb science, science asbab an-nuzul, and Madaniyah makkiyah science and science-mansukh Nasikh. But, all this was narrated by talqin (learning from the teacher).
In the next period, a group of scholars conduct a comprehensive interpretation of the corresponding tertibnya al qur'an verse is in the Mushaf. Among them is the famous Ibn Jarir Tabari (d. 310H).
Thus, the first interpretation is done by word of mouth method and transmission, and then undergo a process of codification, but still included in the chapters of hadith. Then on the next stage codified independently. Then came the tafsir bil ma'tsur (which uses the arguments of al-qur'an, hadith the Prophet, and sayings of the Companions and salafush-righteous) and beer-ra'yi interpretation (which use common or personal opinion).
Here are a few studies known as the study of sciences al qur'an. Now we turn to a brief definition of Ulumul Qur'an.
'Ulum is the plural form of' ilm. 'Ilm al fahmu own meaning is wa al-idrak (understanding and knowledge). Then your understanding is developed to study a diverse range of problems with scientific standards.
What is meant by 'Ulum al-Qur'an is a science that includes a variety of studies related to al qur'an studies such as: discussion of an-nuzul asbab, al qur'an collection and compilation, and Madaniyah makkiyah problems, Nasikh and mansukh, muhkam and mutashabihat and others.
Sometimes Ulumul Quran also referred to as usul at-tafsir (the basics / principles) because it contains a variety of basic or fundamental understanding that must be mastered in interpreting the Qur'an.
(Adapted from the book mabahits fi 'Ulumul the Quran, Sheikh Manna' al Qaththan, chapter 1)